fredag, februar 17, 2006
Ettersom dette hvilestedet på www treffer stadig flere mennesker, øker selvsagt samfunnsansvaret, sånn er det bare. Det øker proporsjonalt, bare rett og rimelig, det. Dette har vi tatt følgene av, og kan i dag tilby et unikt krasjkurs, kalt "Hvordan lære å fly en jumbojet av typen Boeing 747-400 på 1-2-3?"
Hva skal du med det, tenker du?
Ha! sier vi da.
Hva om noen ga deg en jumbojet i bursdagsgave, ville du visst hva du skulle gjøre med den?
Hva om du må rekke et viktig møte, men alle SAS-ansatte er sykemeldte?
Hva om du er ombord på et fly hvor pilotene plutselig ikke vil mer?
Hva skal du gjøre?
Hva i all verden skal du finne på?
Skal du gi opp?
Nei. langt i fra.
Du skal ta saken i egne hender, med hjelp fra Lacktr Edctn (Education)
Fly som fuglen!
Det følgende er et minimum av sjekklister og prosedyrer for et Boeing 747-400 fly for ca. 400 passasjerer. Det er tungt, svært som fy og håpløst å kjøre rundt med. men ved hjelp av denne listen, bør det gå greit. Det er ingen liste å bygge en pilotkarriere på, men det burde hjelpe den dagen du trenger det.
Vi tar det for gitt at du har med deg en laptop på tidspunktet, med trådløst bredbånnd e.l., slik at du kan komme inn på denne siden.
Listen er satt sammen av et samlet Lacktr Edctn i samarbeid med pilot Mohamed Baker.
Vi har til og med slengt med noen prosedyrer om alle motorene skulle slukke, samt prosedyre for landing på vann!
Dumsnille, det er det vi er.
Lacktr Prpgnda ønsker å understreke at vi på ingen måte støtter kapringer eller annen kriminell aktivitet i luften, og forutsetter at man i benyttelsen av denne listen enten a) eier flyet selv eller b) har fått lov av folk med lov til å gi lov til å fly det. Vi fraskriver oss også alt ansvar for eventuelle, vel, mislykkede flyvninger, og gjør oppmerksom på at operasjonslistene ikke er fullstendige, men kun altså ment som et minimum for å komme seg rundt forbi om man er i fare eller har det skikkelig travelt eller er hypp på en tur eller så. Det anbefales også å legge inn noe ekstra tid til å finne ut hva forkortelsene står for, og hvor de forskjellige bryterne finnes. Det må dessuten, til sist, understrekes at dette kurset ikke tar høyde for at det potensielt kan være andre fly som flakser rundt der oppe, og som i motsetning til deg, vet hvor de skal og hvordan de kommer seg dit.
FLIGHT OPERATION / BOEING 747-400
2.1 INITIAL COCKPIT PREPARATIONS
1. Set aircraft exterior lighting
2. Check that Landing Gear lever is down
3. Check that the overhead panel is functional
4. Enter FMC Route Data
5. Verify the RTE and LEGS page
6. Verify the Takeoff REF page
7. Verify PERF INIT page
8. Verify the route entries
2.2 COCKPIT PREPARATIONS
1. Make Sure that Landing Lights are turned off
2. Taxi and strobe lights must be turned off too
3. Turn Fuel pump switches off
4. Set the EFIS control panel
5. F/D switches must be turned on
6. Autopilot switches must be turned off
7. Set the IAS/ MACH Selector
8. Set the altitude Selector
9. Check and set the clock
10. Check the standby instruments
11. Check the GPS
12. Autobrake selector is RTO
13. Set the Parking Brake
14. Make sure that the speed brake lever is up
15. The Yaw Damper must be off
16. The throttles must be closed
17. The reverse thrust levers must be down
18. Check the flap lever
19. Set the transponder
20. Get ATIS information
2.3 FINAL COCKPIT PREPARATIONS
1. Verify the Fuel sheet
2. Get clearance from ATC
3. Review and set the takeoff data
4. Set the IAS/MACH selector
5. Set the heading selector
6. Set the Altitude selector
7. Complete the departure briefing
8. Turn Pitot Heat on
2.4 PUSHBACK PROCEDURES
1. Doors must be closed
2. The cabin must have been prepared
3. Pushback clearance must be obtained
2.5 ENGINE START PREPARATIONS
1. Turn beacon switch on
2. Turn fuel pumps on
3. Turn strobes on
NOTE: Turn beacon switch on
2.6 ENGINE START
1. Display secondary engine indications
2. Start ignition selectors
3. Run the Fuel Control Switches
4. Monitor the engine indications
5. Turn anti-ice switches on after engine start
6. Get clearance for taxi
7. Pitot Heat (ON)
8. De-ice (AS REQUIRED)
9. Engine Start Levers (CHECK IDLE)
10. Lights (AS REQUIRED)
11. Autopilot (SET and OFF)
12. Instruments (CHECK)
13. Autobrake Switch (RTO)
14. Avionics Switch (ON)
15. Avionics / Radio (SET)
1. Set the flaps
2. Check Flight Controls
3. Confirm Takeoff Performance
4. Set stabiliser trim
5. Display LEGS page
6. Complete cabin notification
7. Turn transponder on
8. Arm Autopilot switches needed
Before entering the runway a positive clearance must be
obtained from tower/departure.
Line-up exactly on the center of the runway, unless a strong
cross-wind (greater than 15 knots) is active.
In such case center offset into the direction of the crosswind,
to prevent drifting off course.
1. Receive takeoff clearance
2. Turn landing lights on
3. Thrust Levers (ADVANCE SMOOTHLY TO 40% N1)
--WAIT FOR ENGINE STABILIZATION—
4. Thrust Levers (ADVANCE SMOOTHLY TO 93% N1)
I. TO/GA Mode (ENGAGE)
II. Engine Instruments (MONITOR)
III. Airspeed 80 KIAS (CALLOUT “80 KNOTS”)
--VERIFY PROPER THRUST SET—
5. Airspeed V1 (CALLOUT “V1”)
6 .Airspeed VR (CALLOUT “ROTATE”)
--ROTATE TO APPROX. 10 DEGREES PITCH UP—
7. Airspeed V2 (CALLOUT V2)
8. Landing Gear (UP (WHEN POSITIVE CLIMB ESTABLISHED)
9. Airspeed (MAINTAIN V2+20KIAS)
( ) Autopilot (ENGAGE AT 1,000’ AGL)
( ) Flaps (RETRACT TO 1 AT 1,000’ AGL)
( ) FLAPS (UP AT 210 KIAS)
( ) Autothrottle (OFF)
( ) Thrust Levers (90% N1)
( ) Airspeed (250 KIAS AT 3,000’ AGL)
( ) Landing Gear Lever (Verify OFF)
2.9 AFTER TAKEOFF
1. Engage Autopilot (see guidance)
2. Retract flaps and landing gear (see guidance)
3. Monitor thrust
4. Turn yaw damper on
1. Set altitude
2. Set altimeters
3. Turn landing lights off at 6, 000 feet
The VS (vertical-speed) depends of the different weights at
take-off, weather conditions and noise abatement
Use the step climb procedure for climbing to cruise level.
After take off at 1000 feet level off and accelerate to 200
At accelerated speed start climbing to 3000 feet and level
off. Accelerate to 250 knots IAS or Vzf (Flaps UP+20)
Start climbing to 10.000 feet at 250 knots IAS maximum,
there after climb with 330 knots IAS maximum until 31,000
feet is reached.(Then switch to mach 0.82)
TYPICAL THRUST SETTINGS
Until 1000 feet, maintain takeoff thrust setting
Until 3000 feet, reduce thrust to 96% N1 if was higher
Until 10000 feet, reduce thrust to 90% N1 if was higher
1. Monitor Cruise Thrust
2. Monitor Flight Progress
3. Monitor Fuel Management
Depending on the weight and fuel start normal cruise level
on 31.000 feet MSL.
Accelerate to economic cruise speed of 0.85 Mach. Do not
Typical thrust setting is around 90% N1 for cruising.
After fuel burn, indicated with a higher speed or reduced N1
readout start climbing to level 35.000 feet.
After level off at this altitude repeat above and go to final
cruise level of 38.000 feet.
Monitor engine and fuel readouts constantly.
Do not exceed econ. -cruise speed of 0.85 Mach.
Set altimeter to 1013hPa/29.92inchHg passing through
transition level (USA 18,000ft; NZ 11,000up/13,000dwn)
On the next page a MTOW climb schedule is given with
enhanced figures for optimum performance. Notice higher
speeds and higher thrust settings.
2.12 DESCENT AND APPROACH
1. Get ATIS information
2. Enter Arrival Entries
3. Complete Legs Page
4. Accomplish approach and landing briefing
5. Autobrake switch is as required
6. Turn Landing Lights on at 6,000 feet
7. Set the altimeters
2.13 FINAL APPROACH
1. Check Flight instruments
2. Extend flaps as required
3. Lower landing gear
4. Speed brake lever must be armed
5. Turn yaw damper off
2.14 TAXI AND PARKING
1. Turn Landing lights off
2. Disengage Autopilot
3. Speed brake lever must be down
4. Turn strobe lights off
5. Turn Autobrake selector off
6. Retract flaps
7. Set transponder on standby
8. Once in parking spot, set parking brakes
9. Cut off Fuel Control Switches
10. Turn Fuel Pump Switches off
11. Turn exterior lights off
12. Turn Pitot Heat off
NOTE: Remember to set parking brakes
3.1 TAXI ONTO RUNWAY
Taxi to runway ONLY after positive clearance from tower.
Checklists must be completed, and the preflight briefing
can be performed now.
Monitor constantly the engine readout’s.
TYPICAL THRUST N1 FOR TAXI AT VARIOUS WEIGHTS
20% N1 at takeoff weight 600.000 pounds (272.000 kg)
25% N1 at takeoff weight 800.000 pounds (362.880 kg
30% N1 at takeoff weight 875.000 pounds (396.900 kg)
Note that barometric pressure, icing and overall weather
conditions have influence on the exact setting. Do not
exceed thrust above settings to prevent nose-wheel
slipping at turns or loss of control. Brake if necessarily
before turning. Do not use thrust-reversers for braking due
the possibility of ingestion foreign bodies into engine inlet
and causing fan damage.
Maximum taxi-speed is 25 knots.
PROCEDURES747- 400 747- 400
4.1 ENGINE OUT EMERGENCY
However engine out problems are rare, they can
happen. Especially during the takeoff phase of flight
constant monitoring of the engine read-outs is
mandatory and a RTO (rejected take off) must initiated
if possible. Normally until V1 is reached.
After that when V2 is reached normal RTO and roll out
until complete stop at the runway is not possible due
the heavy weight of the airplane at NTW.
The preflight briefing should include the taken action if
an engine failure occurs.
OPERATIONS FOR ENGINE OUT
1. Maintain pitch and V2 until 1000 feet AGL
2. Retract flaps. If turn is necessarily limit bank angle to
3. Accelerate to Vzf up with 0-500 VS
4. Accomplish engine failure checklist
5. Continue climb at normal flaps up height/speed
6. Accelerate level.
Procedure complies to multi engine failure.
ALL ENGINES OUT.Theoretically it is certainly possible to accomplish a landing after a prolonged glide in the 747, as long as the pilot was able to have ALL
of the airspace to the airport for his own use. In other words, all other
traffic would have to cleared out of the area.
The 747 has a “range” of at least 120 nautical miles for “gliding” if the
airplane is cruising at 39,000 feet. Using the Moving Map display
function on the NAV Display use the “Fix” function and draw a 120
nautical mile “arc” around present position. Any adequately sized
airport that fell within that “arc” would be fair game for a try ! Try to
arrive at a 30 nautical mile point from the airport at an altitude no
lower than 12000 feet, and at that time still have the airplane in a
“clean” configuration with no flaps or gear extended.
If in fact all 4 engines were shut down due to fuel starvation the
hydraulic engine driven pumps on each engine would still be
serviceable for the extension of the trailing edge flaps and landing
gear due to the engines windmilling from the forward airflow.
However, the leading edge flaps that are normally extended with
pneumatic power would not be useable. This would increase the
approach speed by about 15 knots. There is a backup system for the
leading edge flaps, but it is electrical in nature and there is doubt if
the on battery(s) would have enough power for extension, and
because of the much slower extension speeds of the leading edge
flaps, it would be hard to “schedule” them into this exciting approach
Fly over the Outer Marker at an altitude of at least 1500 feet above the
normal target altitude over that beacon and from that point forward
extend the remaining trailing edge flaps and lower the landing gear.
Keep the Flight Spoilers as back up for any errors that become
obvious from being too high on the approach. The key to the whole
operation is to conserve the altitude and then bleed it off with the
various drag devices.
The final backup is, if still too high would be to “slip” the airplane
much as one does with a biplane. This is entirely possible in a 747
and it is done during an approach to JFK’s Runway 13L after a
Canarsie approach….an approach that rivals Hong Kong’s infamous
ILS for edge of the seat flying without any mountains in the way.
LANDING ON WATER
No one ever wants to try and ditch a 747 but it COULD be done.
The recommended procedures always include the pilots
determining the primary and secondary “swell” of the ocean
surface. DISREGARD the wind caused smaller swell and to
plan our heading for water contact in a parallel direction to the
larger and primary swell. Slamming into a large wave swell at
130 knots is not going to be a good deal ! Landing parallel to it
is better. It is recommended that the gear remain retract and
use FULL flaps. It is suggested that to take the airplane down
to ONE THOUSAND foot and hold her off as long as possible !!!
Emergency descent from high altitude (e.g. 35,000 feet) in
case of multi engine flameout, decompression or other
hazardous situation must be completed within the aircraft
specifications of maximum operation speed of 0.92 mach
during the descend, gear extension limit of 270 knots or
0.82 mach. Try raise the nose first to lower airspeed after
throttles to idle to speed limitations and deploy spoilers,
extend gear and use full flaps for speed braking until a
save flight-level is obtained.
A stall occurs when a wing reaches its critical angle of
attack. Regardless of load factor, airspeed, bank angle, or
atmospheric conditions, a wing always stalls at the same
critical angle of attack
There is only one way to recover from a stall—reduce the
angle of attack. Apply forward pressure on the control
yoke or stick to reduce the angle of attack, and add
power to minimize loss of altitude.
Stall recovery consists of recovery at:
• low altitude, low speed
add full thrust for later climb out
watch altitude, lower nose for about 5o
or below 1000 feet, level off and pray.
• high altitude, high speed
lower nose maximum
do not add thrust to prevent overspeed
choose a lower flight-level after recovery
In case the captain, or pilot flying (PF) decides to reject
the takeoff the following procedure must completed.
• only attempt to RTO when rolling at V1 max until Vr
after that the aircraft must fly!
• if autobrakes are set to RTO, the autobrake system will
apply maximum braking when throttle is put to idle
• apply reverse thrust as needed
• extend spoilers to prevent lift
Go-Around will normally initiated after a missed
approach. However some parameters must be carefully
monitored when performing a Go-Around. First monitor
the rate of climb and retract landing gear as soon as
possible after a positive rate of climb, monitor thrust
after using the TOGA switch. (autothrottles must be
engaged for TOGA usage) Continue climb for normal
Limit bank angle to 150.
Refer to normal-take-off chart in the take-off section.
Mohamed sier "Lift us up where we belong!"